Sans Camera Exhibition

The Sans Camera exhibition was a two-week long exhibition held at Galerie 5.6 at the art department, University of Ottawa. This was a student effort, collaborating to curate a themed exhibition. The work chosen was from out first photography assignment, using pinhole cameras as well as photograms and invented negatives. Working as a group, we were able to choose two works from each person, selecting out of the ones the student wanted to exhibit. The photograms and invented negatives were then displayed in a portrait manner, laid across one wall with the pinhole photography reflecting them on the other side. The exhibition even went around the corner and down the corridor, enticing people to see it when they were walking through the department. To further entice those in the department to take a look at the exhibition, the pinhole cameras were displayed on a wall upstairs on the main floor, with instructions to go downstairs and see the photos that these cameras produced.

Those who came to the exhibition reception, held at the end of the exhibition, found viewing the cameras very exciting as they were not anticipating cardboard boxes and coffee tins. Holding the exhibition in Galerie 5.6 also allowed those visiting to gain more of an idea of our process and areas that we work in, allowing them to somewhat appreciate the work further.

The two works I submitted to the exhibition were “to pytalise” , an invented negative of my saliva, and Churchgoers, a pinhole photograph of cars lined up by the nearby church. These suited the theme of the exhibition, but also stood out, especially that of “to pytalise”, due to its subject matter.

The exhibition has now moved to Paradigm(e) Gallery, which is the Dean’s gallery at the University of Ottawa until the end of February, where they are all on sale.

Transforming Chairs into Sculpture

Working with the turtle shell design, I had to manipulate the wood of the chairs to gain the curvature of the shell in a geometric form. I wanted all the pieces to line up initially, but as the project went on I found this increasingly hard to do, and found that the imperfections within the shell were much more interesting. I was able to cut and sand the wood into the angles needed for the shell, joining each piece together with a nail gun and wood glue. For the smaller, second piece at the bottom of the shell, I was able to use all of the off-cuts and pieces that I wasn’t able to use anywhere else to preserve wood and create a unique pattern. The blue wood of the seat of the chair was used as the partition between each section as a clear break.

The wood workshop was only used after an introduction to the equipment, whereupon I was able to use most of it to my advantage within the project.

Photography Assignment Two

The second photography assignment took us into 35mm black and white photography, where we were to develop both the film and the images ourselves. The assignment was to photograph things that we have never seen before, or objects in a way that we have never seen before. I felt as though I had a small advantage as I was new to the country. While walking around the city, I found different objects and scenes that I was able to photograph in high detail. The project also stretched my knowledge of SLR cameras and photography, as well as the way in which I arrange myself when taking a photograph to manipulate the final result.

For the photographs of stairs, I was inspired by the photography of Andrew Wright, who photographs trees to put them in their vertical position. This made the photographs of the stairs somewhat confusing, as you wished to tilt your head for the background to be horizontal, but the crop of the image would make it feel abnormal, making you look at the image as it is presented. This fragmented reality through careful cropping and imaging is also seen in the work of Pascal Grandmaison.

Within the dark room, I was able to display my use of the filters within the enlarger, breaking up the number of greys within the image – this is seen in the image of the bin. Dodging and burning was a technique I utilised throughout the development of the images to provide better contrast in certain areas. The final images were clear, crisp and included a high range of tones. The project not only expanded my knowledge of 35mm photography, but also my knowledge of the city of Ottawa.

Artist Presentation – Nancy Holt

Within Introduction to Sculpture, we were asked to present a PowerPoint to the group about a contemporary sculptor, looking at 6 – 10 artworks of theirs. I chose Nancy Holt, who is known for her large scale and public sculptures.
The PowerPoint used, can be found here; Nancy Holt – Artist Presentation.
Nancy Holt was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, 1938. Her father was a chemical engineer, her mother was a homemaker and she graduated from Tufts University in 1960 as a biology major. Holt moved to New York and worked alongside Michael Heizer, Carl Andre, Eva Hesse, Richard Serra and her husband, Robert Smithson.
Holt was a key member of the Earth, Land and Conceptual art movements, and helped to develop unique aesthetic of perception. This enables visitors to her sites to engage with the landscape in new and challenging ways. Working in many mediums, she was a pioneer of site-specific installation and film and video work.
There was an exploration and revision of the ways people viewed the world around them, and Holt wanted to make it simpler –

“I wanted to bring the vast space of the desert back to human scale. I had no desire to make a megalithic monument. The panoramic view of the landscape is too overwhelming to take in without visual reference points… through the tunnels, parts of the landscape are framed and come into focusthe work encloses surrounds…

Concrete Visions, 1967

Concrete Visions (1967)
Composite inkjet print of archival rag paper taken from original 126 format black and white negatives; printed 2012. 35 x 35 inches; 88.9 x 88.9 cm.
Holt’s early photographs laid the foundation for her sculpture work. She photographed the sites where Smithson would obtain the materials for his work. There is an exploration of perception, seeing frames within frames. By arranging the work in sequences, it offers multiple perspective compromising the whole of art, and rejects one-point perspective.

Western Graveyards, 1968

Western Graveyards (1968)
60 inkjet prints on archival rag paper, printed from original 126 format transparencies; printed 2012. 18 x 18 inches; 45.7 x 45.7 cm.
This work compromises of old cemeteries in the deserts of Nevada and California, many fenced off and overgrown. Holt uses this work as an anthropological study through photography. Holt takes the grave and makes it a work of art, making graves gallery shots. Holt was drawn to the graves because they captured “how people thought about space out the West; their last desire was to delineate a little plot of their own because there was so much vastness.” This reflects her ongoing interest in human interventions in the landscape.

Hydra’s Head, 1974

Hydra’s Head (1974)
This work is much of an unknown, as documentation of the work has been kept to a minimum. It is an arrangement of concrete cylinders in a riverbank that corresponds to the constellation above. Holt’s work consistently sets us on the ground, only to have us look up at the sky.

holt_pinebarrens_xlPine Barrens (1975)
30:24 min; colour, sound, film on HD video.
This video shows the desolate sand and pipe landscapes of central New Jersey. The visual work is combined with audio of local music and interviews with residents, known as ‘Pineys’. What is heard is feelings about the land, their attitudes to city life and myths of the area. It adds a psychological dimension to the landscape. Holt is concerned with evoking a wilderness in south-central New Jersey. The camera is always in motion – tracking, pivoting and walking through landscape.

Sun Tunnels, 1973-6

Sun Tunnels (1973-6)
Concrete, steel, earth, 111 x 822 x 636 in.; 281.9 x 2087.9 x 1615.4 cm.
This is Holt’s most infamous large scale installation works in Great Basic Desert, Utah. It composes of four large concrete cylinders, arranged on the desert floor in a cross pattern, that align with the sunrise and sunset on the summer and winter solstices. Each of the cylinders are pierced with smaller holes representing the stars of four constellations; Draco, Perseus, Columba and Capricorn. Holt’s design allows for an ever-changing play of light and shadow upon the surfaces of her work. The work focuses our vision and challenging our understanding of an environment. Holt’s work draws our attention to the complexities of our relationship with the landscape we inhabit and act upon.
Sculptural sites allow the viewer the channel vastness of nature into human scale while creating contemplative, subjective experience grounded in a specific location in real time.

Dark Star Park, 1979-84

Dark Star Park (1979-84)
This was publicly commissioned by Arlington County, Virginia, in conjunction with an urban renewal project. Holt transformed two thirds of an acre that was once a gas station and dilapidated warehouse into a municipal park with pools, spheres tunnels. The forms are a contrast to the busy and highly developed commercial area that surrounds the space. the materials are common to the area and used as building materials. It is an interactive space where the work alters the viewer’s perception by using curvilnear forms. The work explores the concept of time and out relationship with the universe, inked to Holt’s obsession with solar eclipses. Each year at 9:32am on August 1, the date in 1860 on which the land became Rosslyn was purchased, the natural shadows of the sculptures align with the fabricated shadows.

“It’s called Dark Star Park because in my imagination there spheres are like stars that have fallen to the ground – they no longer shine – so I think of the park/artwork in a somewhat celestial way.”

Solar Rotary, 1995

Solar Rotary (1995)
University of South Florida, Tampa
This is a public art installation of eight connected poles and benches arranged in a circular plaza. It is influences by the sun’s movement and the summer solstice. The piece includes several elements including a central circular stone with a 4.5 billion-year-old meteorite, seats at North South East West and five plaques and benches commemorating significant events in Florida’s history with considerate planting. On any given day, Solar Rotary will cast its dynamic sun symbol shadow in a continuously changing pattern on the pavement below, highlighting plaques on their corresponding dates.

35mm Photography: Negatives to Positives

After developing the 35mm black and white film, the next process was to enlarge the image onto photographic paper to produce a final print. This used the same techniques previously used in photograms and invented negatives, whereupon test strips were produced to gain the right exposure for the image to have the correct amount of grey variations. Filters were used above the film carrier, within the enlarger head, to reduce the number of greys within the photograph and create a more monochrome image.

The film enters the film carrier with the correct negative inserted. Using a scrap piece of photographic paper, line up the easel and use the focus knob to ensure the image will not be fuzzy nor blurry. Additional tools can be used to completely focus the image. Once this is complete and you are happy with the set up, proceed with a test strip, normally testing every 5 seconds with an aperture of around f/8, but this can depend on the image. Find the correct settings for the image, but do not move your enlarger head, film nor easel as you place a full sheet of photographic paper in and complete a copy of the whole image. Develop this and repeat from here until a final image that you are happy with, appears.

Sculpture: Plaster Assignment

Introduction to sculpture was a module that looked at the manipulation of new and found materials. This manipulation was to stretch both us and the material, stretching and growing both our knowledge of the material, and how comfortable we were with it. Within the plaster project, the consistency of material was played within the techniques of relief mould, two-part mould, alginate casts, and a basic flat cast. I wanted to create pieces that create both the senses of confusion, but also an element of comfort. This was inspired by the work of Tiffany April, whose installation and painting work provided calmness, but also confusion. My sketchbook designs were based around this, but were often drawn up after creating the plaster element. This prevented planning, so that I could completely be at one with the plaster, instead of following a plan.

Sticking My Pieces to You has introduced the manipulation and exploration of materials, developing ideas around bodily and world views. The ripped maps on the plaster head highlights the ‘unnatural’ contours of the face, ones that people may not see, adding a layer of movement that brings you around the head. The use of text within the piece was unique and added a strange juxtaposition between the torn up maps of the world, showing chaos and destruction, and the calm and orderly chocolate pot.

Overall, I was very pleased with the plaster head project. It allowed me to explore the use of plaster in a different environment, and stretched what I thought it was capable of doing. The balance of the piece, I believe to be successful, as the piece shows the delicacy of the world that we currently live in, while giving us some piece of mind with a hot chocolate.

35mm Photography

Regular format photography is also known as 35mm photography. The measurement of 35mm references the width of film and can also be found in other sizes. Many cameras that use 35mm film are SLRs, or Single Lens Reflex camera, meaning that there is a pentaprism from the viewfinder to the lens, allowing us to see through the lens. When the shutter is pressed, the mirror will raise and the shutter will activate, taking a photo.
Film is sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, so you must be cautious when loading and unloading the film from the camera that it is completely wound into the canister. You cannot let the camera see the light until after the fix stage of development. If it is exposed, the film will turn black. Because of this, you have to take the film out of the canister in complete darkness. For this process, see Developing Film.
You have to be aware of the ISO/ASA as this measures the films’ sensitivity to light. If it is sensitive to light, it require less light in exposure. You tell the camera what sensitivity the film is inside the window on the shutter speed measure circle. The lower the ASA, the lower the sensitivity to light, meaning a higher exposure. 400 is normally a good, general purpose film.
Exposure is important in the photo, and you must use the exposure reading by pushing the shutter button half way down. This will show you a plus, green circle or minus as the camera assumes that everything will be middle grey. You want to alter the shutter speed and aperture so you have the green light showing. Ensure you focus before taking the photo. Moving the frame will alter the exposure, meaning you have to change the shutter speed and aperture again.
There is a direct relationship between shutter speed and aperture as when you increase the f-stop, you lower the shutter speed. The give or take, or reciprocity, between the two allows to to roughly gather what settings you may need to change. You shouldn’t shoot anything with a shutter speed longer than 1/60 of a second as it will pick up camera blur.

  • Shutter speed/TV: smaller number = bigger hole = more light. Bigger number = smaller hole = less light
  • Aperture/AV: smaller number = bigger aperture = smaller focus range. Bigger number = smaller aperture = bigger focus range

The consequence of changing aperture is changing the depth of field, or the range that will be in focus. If the aperture is wide open (smaller number), the depth of field will be small. Changing the aperture will re-position the focus of the depth of field and can change the context of the image. You can determine the depth of field with the preview button that is found on the side of the lens. This will determine how much of the image is in focus around the focal point, and will make it seem like the image goes darker.
The depth of field can be changed with aperture along with focal distance of the lens and the camera to subject the distance. The closer the subject to the lens the lower the depth of field (relative distance).
I used all of this theory while using the 35mm cameras to take images for the second photography assignment, Like Nothing You’ve Seen Before.

Plaster heads

Above: the sketchbook pages outlining my ideas around plaster and the manipulation of the materials in a project where the concept was to have no concept.
As the main element of the plaster assignment, we were each individually given a Styrofoam head to transform using plaster. We also had to include a base that we had found the week before, and it was a difficult challenge to bring these together in harmony. I did not have any preconceptions of what I wanted the head to look like. Many of the drawings I did for planning, were completed after the main areas of plaster were already on. Cheesecloth as well as plaster was used to stick the plaster to the Styrofoam.
The first section completed was the hooped handles at the top and bottom of the head. I wanted to incorporate other materials from the get go, and building the handles with skewers and cotton wool balls allowed me to do so, and create a strong structure.

After adding these, I felt that something was missing, and I wanted to have more movement within the piece. I found some cardboard and started to rip it and bend it freely into shapes around the head. Once the first piece of cheesecloth was in the centre, holding the piece down, I then started to create the curvature from the centre of the face and around the left side.

However, something was still missing, and I felt that the neck was too bland and a balance of plaster needed to be copied on the right side. I replicated the random positioning of cardboard from mid to bottom head. This came with a break between this piece of cardboard, and the existing piece already on the head. The break in the curve was welcome as it showed an unexpected turn of events.

I was happy with the design of the head, and the movement that was created with each layer and addition of plaster. I decided to sand the head down in order to make it smooth, while still seeing the imperfections. Allowing the piece to continue to show the imperfections lets you view the rawness of the material.

But once again, there was something missing, until I found three giant maps while routing around in the skips out the back. These were in very good condition and grabbed my attention immediately – I felt like I had to use them in some way or another with the plaster head.

Then began the process of paper mache with the maps, to the head. I didn’t want large clumps of map to overwhelm the head, so I ripped the islands on the maps up into manageable sized chunks that allowed you to roughly see the country but not overwhelming you. The thick pieces of map had to be soaked in water first before applying to a dampened plaster with diluted white glue. I followed the ‘unnatural’ contours of the face that people may not see. This added an extra layer of movement.

To finalise the design, I used sandpaper over the maps to rough them up and to bring plaster through some holes. This made the maps look like they were a part of the process of the head, rather than added at last minute. I also added maps to the side of my base, a ceramic chocolate pot. This connected the two together even further. The use of text within the piece fascinated me, as it is not often that you openly see text within a sculpture. There is a strange juxtaposition between the torn up maps of the world, showing chaos and destruction, and the calm and orderly chocolate pot.
The final addition were three curved wires from the bottom of the maps that mimicked the curvatures found in the head.

Overall, I was very pleased with the plaster head project. It allowed me to explore the use of plaster in a different environment, and stretched what I thought it was capable of doing. The balance of the piece, I believe to be successful, as the piece shows the delicacy of the world that we currently live in, while giving us some piece of mind with a hot chocolate.

Final display of plaster head and base

Two-part Plaster Mould

Sketchbook spread outlining process and ideas of a two-part mould casting

I had never worked with a process with as many steps as the two-part mould, but was very happy with the final casts that captured a high level of detail from the silicone mould. The silicone allows for several casts, unlike alginate.

Sketchbook pages outlining the complex process of a two-part mould and a mother mould counterpart

Silicone mould:

  • Choose an object. A hard object with good volume is ideal for a first mould.
  • Fix object to a board, ideally using a screw.
  • Prepare your work space with your object, silicone and gel, paintbrush, scraper, mixing stick (an ice-lolly stick or scrap piece of wood is ideal) and thickener.
  • Add the silicone to the gel, mixing well.
  • For 400ml silicone, add one cap of thickener. To get finer detail, make a thin layer without thickener and wait until it gets tacky, then add a thicker layer.
  • Add clay to the base for a ticker pour spout. Liberally apply silicone to object.
  • Smooth down using a scraper to make a relatively flat surface.
  • Ensure all areas are covered, making one side slightly thicker than the rest.
  • Leave for 24 hours to completely set and dry.

Mother mould:

  • Mentally draw a line around the mould, splitting it in half while ensuring there are no steep curves. Draw this line using thick pieces of clay, reinforcing it on one side of the mould.
  • Get the clay to be right angles to the silicone mould.
  • Add indents so the other side of the mould has something else to hook onto.
  • Using thicker made plaster, slap it on to get rid of any extra air bubbles.
  • As it gets thicker, dome the shape of the plaster. The walls need to be thick to withstand several casts.
  • Once one side it dry, take off all the clay. smooth the side of the plaster mould.
  • Cover the wall and some of the outer cast in Vaseline. This ensures that the plaster will not stick to each other, creating the two sides of the mould.
  • Complete the same plaster process on the other side, sans clay.
  • Once both sides are dry, split the mould in half.

Silicone mould:

  • Cut a zigzag pattern down the thickest part of the mould.


  • Put the silicone mould back into the mother mould, sliding the two halves of the mother mould together. Attach using thick sellotape, wrapped around the mould.
  • Mix a thin plaster. Pour a small amount of plaster into the mould, swirl, pour it out. This picks up lots of detail that may otherwise be trapped.
  • Repeat several times.
  • Top up the mould with plaster and tap to get bubbles out.
  • Leave to set.
  • Once set and dry, cut open the sellotape and get out cast from the mould.
  • Put the silicone and mother mould back together and repeat for number of casts desired.

Despite the long process, the final product was very appeasing. The high amount of detail that was picked up by the silicone mould was beautifully replicated in the cast produced. I was able to produce two casts from this mould, both of which came out wonderfully. There was some difficulty getting the silicone out of the mother mould the second time, however it was eased out. If I am able to in the future, I would like to explore the use of a repetitive process with moulds, and the impact of repetition.

Final cast from the two-part silicone mould of an unknown vegetable.